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Our Heritage – Wilkes County and Georgia During The American Revolution

Links and Resources and Organizations


The American Revolution began unofficially before 1770, but the dates officially used are from 1775-1783. During the last half of the 18th century the political, social, and intellectual differences between Great Britain and the 13 colonies finally culminated with the separation as determined by the Declaration of Independence written and signed July 4th, 1776. The first shots were fired at Lexington and Concord April 19th, 1775. After the British declared war on the “Rebels or Whigs” or as we now call them “the Patriots or Americans”, there were many battles in the northern colonies in which the British army won most of them. However, after it appeared a stalemate when the French army entered the war early in 1778 and the Battle of Monmouth was won by Gen. George Washington and his Continental Army (it was the last major battle in the North) the British developed a “Southern Strategybelieving the Loyalists (British sympathizers) would rally to their flag and once the British took over the South, they would then build their army with Loyalists (and slaves) and march back north and defeat George Washington and his Army. Beginning in late 1778, the British took Savannah and in 1780 they overran Charleston. This gave the British the potential to overtake both Georgia and South Carolina. However, the British overestimated the Loyalist’s (or Tory’s) numbers and the Whigs or Patriots provided some chastising engagements to help control the advancement of the British influence. Wilkes County provided part of that resistance and ultimately provided a small but major victory to help provide a moral victory which resonated across the South . The Battle of Kettle Creek, as small as it was, gave incentative to the Whigs or Patriots to continue the fight and thus, Wilkes County became known as the “Hornet’s Nest”. Below are books and articles written by noted authors which explain more about Wilkes County and Georgia.         

The Declaration of Independence. Dr. Karl Clay Ouzts, professor in the History Department of Gainesville College explains the passions, events, and situations preceding the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

When in the Course of human events,

The Founders and the “Event” of Independence

By Clay Ouzts

When Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the nation’s independence, he was already widely recognized as one of the most important figures of America’s revolution, largely due to his authorship of the Declaration of Independence. By 1826, July fourth celebrations had assumed a sacred, ritual place in the hearts of Americans, as had the ideals of freedom and liberty professed in the Declaration. Through the years since 1776, Jefferson kept the red mahogany desk on which he penned the Declaration tucked away at his home, Monticello, in Virginia. (Click on the link below to read the remainder…..)

When in the Course of human events

                                Revolutionary War Sites  in Georgia
                               G
eorgia’s Major Battles 
                              A Summary of Battle Sites


#1- Fight at Van(n)’s Creek - February 11, 1779
Encouraged by the capture of Savannah, the British commissioned Loyalist Col. Boyd to raise militia in the Carolina and Georgia backcountry. With over 700 Loyalists, Boyd attempted to cross the Savannah River at Cherokee Ford where the
Patriots thwarted his approach. He moved five miles upstream and on February 11, 1779, crossed at Van(n)’s Creek in present-day Elbert County. However, Patriot opposition seriously weakened Boyd’s forces by about 100 men, many of whom deserted and returned to the Carolinas. The Cherokee Ford - Van(n)’s Creek Monument is located at Richard B. Russell State Park, Elbert County, GA. Telephone (706) 213-2045. GPS: N34.162 W82.744

http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_003.htm

#2- Battle of Kettle Creek - February 14, 1779

In early 1779, Patriot Colonels Andrew Pickens, John Dooly and Elijah Clarke joined forces to overtake Colonel Boyd and his Loyalists. On February 14, 1779, Boyd halted his troops for breakfast in a flat area between a steep hill and Kettle Creek. Outnumbered more than two to one, Pickens attacked with 200 South Carolina Militia in the center, and 160 Wilkes County Georgia Militia on his flanks. Boyd led about 100 men up the hill where he was mortally wounded. After intense fighting for over an hour, the Loyalists were routed with a loss of 70 killed or wounded, and 150 captured. The Battle of Kettle Creek was one of Georgia’s most memorable victories during the American Revolution. The Kettle Creek Battleground is located 10 miles from Washington off SR 44 in Wilkes County, GA. An exhibit of artifacts is displayed at the Washington Historical Museum, Washington, GA. Telephone (706) 678- 2105. GPS: N33.691 W82.886 http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_005.htm

#3- Heroes of the Hornet’s Nest: Elijah Clarke and John Dooly

Two of Georgia’s heroes of the American Revolution -- Elijah Clarke and John Dooly -- rest today on the land where over 230 years ago they “stung like hornets,” routing British, Loyalists and Indians alike. In addition to the Georgia battles, Clarke and other leaders of the Georgia Continentals and Militia, including LtCol. Francis Henry Harris, took decisive roles in the fighting in the Carolinas from May 1780, through September 1781, while Georgia witnessed a relative lull in the war. Grave markers of Elijah and Hannah Clarke are located at Elijah Clark State Park, near John Dooly’s home site where Loyalists murdered him. The Park maintains log cabins, furnished and equipped much like a Georgia backcountry home of circa 1780. Elijah Clark State Park, Lincoln County, GA. Telephone (706) 359-3458. GPS: N33.856 W81.466

http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_007.htm

#4- Augusta in the American Revolution

A backcountry town of approximately one hundred families, Augusta was the site of two major battles and was Georgia’s Revolutionary capital after the capture of Savannah.

First Siege of Augusta- On September 14, 1780, Patriot LtCol. Elijah Clarke led Georgia and South Carolina Militia in an attack on Loyalist LtCol. Thomas Brown’s garrison. Clarke besieged Brown for four days, but when a British relief force appeared, he had to break off the siege. Clarke was forced to leave behind many wounded of whom thirteen were hanged by the Loyalists.

Second Siege of Augusta- During May 1781, Patriot fortunes had improved in the Carolinas and Continental Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene ordered Gen. Andrew Pickens and LtCol. "Light Horse Harry" Lee to join LtCol. Elijah Clarke in besieging Augusta. In the course of a two-week battle, Lee's engineers constructed a wooden tower from which a cannon could reach the interior of the British Fort Cornwallis. Loyalist LtCol. Thomas Brown held out until June 5, 1781, when he was finally induced to surrender. The capture of Augusta gave American peace negotiators in Paris reason to demand the independence of Georgia even though Savannah remained in British hands for the ensuing year. The Fort Cornwallis Historical Marker is located behind St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, Augusta, GA. GPS: N33.476 W81.961
http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_009.htm



#5- Battle of Brier Creek – March 3, 1779
In a plan to retake Savannah, Continental Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln ordered Gen. John Ashe’s 1,300 North Carolina Militia to rebuild the Freeman- Miller Bridge at Brier Creek in current Screven County and await reinforcements. After capturing Savannah, British Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell proceeded to Augusta to recruit Loyalists. In mid-February, he decided to retreat to Hudson’s Ferry south of Brier Creek. Learning that the Patriots were camped at Brier Creek, Campbell instructed Lt. Col. Mark Prevost with over 1,000 men to proceed northwestward to Paris Mill, cross Brier Creek and attack Ashe from the rear. The British skillful maneuver encircling the Patriots, successful decoy and surprise charge into the Patriots camp ensured the British victory.

One of the most gallant stands against overwhelming odds during the Revolutionary War was made by Continental Col. Samuel Elbert. With his back to Brier Creek and surrounded on the other sides, he attempted to fight his way through the British lines. Of the 150 Americans killed, more than half were Elbert`s men. The total rout of the Patriots re-established Georgia as a Royal Colony until the British were forced to evacuate Savannah in 1782. The Brier Creek Battle Site is located off Brannen Bridges Road in the Tuckahoe Wildlife Management Area, in Screven County, GA. GPS: N32.811 W81.466
http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_011.htm

#6- Savannah in the American Revolution

Savannah, Georgia’s largest city, was the site of three major battles and served as Royal and Revolutionary capital.

Battle of the Riceboats- When British warships arrived in the Savannah River in January 1776, the Whigs placed Governor Wright under arrest and instructed Col. Lachlan McIntosh to defend the city. During March 2-7, 1776, British ships took possession of several rice-laden merchant ships, leading to a heavy exchange of cannon fire with the Patriots. The British sailed away with the fugitive Royal Governor, and the Patriots cleared the river of Loyalist raiders.

Capture of Savannah- By 1778, the American Revolution had reached a stalemate, so the British initiated a “Southern Strategy.” Lt.Col. Archibald Campbell was ordered to invade Georgia, restore British rule, and prepare for the British capture of other Southern colonies. Campbell’s 3,500 troops landed below Savannah at Brewton’s Hill, brushed away token resistance, and on December 29, 1778, routed the Patriots, commanded by Continental Gen. Robert Howe. The British lost only seven men killed and ten wounded, while the Patriots lost 83 men killed and 483 captured. Governor James Wright returned to Savannah in July of 1779, and revived the governments of the Colonial Parishes.

Seige of Savannah- In September 1779, French Count Henri d’Estaing, arrived off the Georgia coast, and disembarked 4,000 troops at Beaulieu on the Vernon River. Continental Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln arrived from Charleston with 1,500 men. On September 16, 1779, d’Estaing demanded the surrender of Savannah, but 800 Highlanders on a remarkable forced march through the marsh and swamps, slipped through the blockade into Savannah. Thus reinforced, British Gen. Augustine Prevost refused to surrender, and completed his defensive fortifications.

Attack at Spring Hill- The Franco-American attack began early on October 9, 1779, at the Spring Hill redoubt. British artillery and musketry ripped the attackers as they advanced. Scottish bagpipes responded to the French battle cry, “Vive le roi!” British, Loyalist, and Hessian defenders cut down those who reached the parapet and planted their colors. The Allied attack failed with the loss of 1,094 killed, of whom 650 were French. Patriot Gen. Casimir Pulaski, “Father of American Cavalry,” received a mortal wound while conducting a reconnaissance. Patriot Sgt. William Jasper, hero of the repelled British attack on Charleston, also received a mortal wound as he defended the South Carolina standard on the parapet. The British reported a loss of 16 killed and 39 wounded. British Gen. Sir Henry Clinton stated that the British victory at Savannah was “the greatest event that has happened in the whole war.”

Final Fight for Independence- In January 1782, Continental Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene ordered Gen. Anthony Wayne to restore Whig authority in Georgia and conduct a war of attrition against the British defenders of Savannah. Wayne established his headquarters at Ebenezer, and after a series of brutal fights, cut off the British supplies. In a serious battle at Gibbons’ plantation in June, Wayne defeated an attempt by Creek Chief Guristersigo and 300 warriors to break into Savannah. On July 11, 1782, the British began to evacuate the city, and Patriot Lt.Col. James Jackson led his Georgia Legion into Savannah. The last battle of the Revolution in Georgia took place on July 25, 1782, between Jackson and British Marines at Delegal’s Plantation on Skidaway Island. The Savannah History Museum includes several Revolutionary War exhibits- Telephone (912) 238-1779. The Battlefield Memorial Park and Spring Hill Redoubt is located at the southwest corner of Louisville Road and M.L. King, Jr. Boulevard, Savannah, GA. GPS: N32.076 W81.100

http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_013.htm

#7- Sunbury, Fort Morris & Midway
Siege November 1778- As the British “Southern Strategy” formed, Gen. Augustin Prevost sent his younger brother, LtCol. Mark Prevost on a forging expedition against the Liberty County settlements. He also directed Col. Lewis Fuser through the inland waterways to capture Sunbury, the second largest town in Georgia. On November 19, 1778, Prevost crossed the Altamaha River with 750 men, ravaged the plantations, mortally wounded Patriot Gen. James Screven in an ambush, and burned the Midway Meeting House. Fuser’s naval force of 500 men occupied Sunbury without firing a shot and he demanded the fort's surrender on November 25, 1778. Patriot LtCol. John McIntosh, defiantly replied, "We, Sir, are fighting the battles of America … as to surrendering the fort, receive this laconic reply: Come and Take it!" Fuser refused to attack and returned with his flotilla to British East Florida.

Capture January 1779- After the British captured Savannah on December 29, 1778, Continental Gen. Robert Howe ordered Patriot Maj. Joseph Lane to evacuate Fort Morris. In January of 1779, after failing to comply with Howe’s order, Lane found both Fort Morris and Sunbury surrounded by over 2,000 British Regulars, Loyalists and Indians. On January 9, 1779, after a three day siege and a brief heavy bombardment, Lane surrendered Fort Morris with 24 cannons and large quantities of provisions. The Patriots lost four killed, seven wounded and about 200 captured, and the British lost one killed and four wounded. Fort Morris State Historic Site, Georgia’s only Revolutionary Historic Site with earthworks, is located in Liberty County, GA. Telephone (912) 884-5999. GPS: N31.224 W81.393
http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_015.htm



#8 - Frederica Naval Action- April 19, 1778

During 1776 and 1777, four heavily-armed row galleys were constructed in Savannah for the Georgia Navy, all underwritten by the Continental Congress. In the Frederica River at St. Simons Island, beginning at dawn on April 19, 1778, Georgia galleys Lee, Washington, and Bulloch, commanded by Continental Col. Samuel Elbert, attacked HM brigantine Hinchinbrook, the armed sloop Rebecca, and a brig. The British attempted to retaliate, but were out-gunned and out-maneuvered. As they tried to gain an advantage by moving down river their ships grounded, were abandoned, and captured. This remarkable victory boosted Patriot morale and delayed by more than eight months the British invasion of Georgia. The Georgia Navy Historical Marker is located at the Fort Frederica National Monument, St. Simons Island, GA. Telephone (912) 638-3639. GPS: N31.224 W81.393 http://www.georgiasocietysar.org/revtrail/grwt_017.htm

History of Wilkes County and Georgia

Books/Articles as Listed



Books

1.Kettle Creek Battle and Battlefield. Washington, Ga.: Washington-Wilkes Publishing, 1979. Robert Scott Davis, author.

Davis1.jpg
Professor Robert Scott Davis

2. Kettle Creek: The Battle of the Cane Brakes. Atlanta: Georgia Department of Natural Resources, l975. Reprinted 2004. Robert Scott Davis, author.


3. Thomas Ansley and the American Revolution in Georgia. Red Springs, NC: Ansley Reunion Press, 1980. Robert Scott Davis, author.


4. Encounters on a March Through Georgia in 1779: The Maps and

Memorandums of Lt. John Wilson, 71st Highlanders. Sylvania, GA. Partridge Pond Press, 1986. Robert Scott Davis, author.


5. Quaker Records in Georgia: Wrightsborough, 1772-1793, Friendsborough, 1775-1777. Augusta: Augusta Genealogical Society, 1986. Robert Scott Davis, author.


6. Georgians in the American Revolution:
At Kettle Creek (Wilkes County) and Burke County. Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1986. Robert Scott Davis, author.



                                                                      Articles

1. "The Loyalist Trials at Ninety Six in 1779." South Carolina Historical Magazine 80 (1979): 172-81. Robert Scott Davis, author.

2. "An Old Map Documents Revolutionary War Sites." Georgia Historical Quarterly 69 (1986): 518-22. Robert Scott Davis, author.


3. “Change and Remembrance: How Promoting the Kettle Creek Battlefield Went from the Means to Becoming the End in Itself.” Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians 24 (2003): 61-79. Robert Scott Davis, author.


4. “Lessons from Kettle Creek: Patriotism and Loyalism at Askance on the Southern Frontier.” Journal of Backcountry Studies 1 (1) (May 2006), n. p. (online journal): http://www.uncg.edu/~rmcalhoo/jbs/ An expanded version of this article is in Robert M. Calhoon, ed., Tory Insurgents through the University of South Craolina Press: http://www.sc.edu/uscpress/books/2010/3920.html

“A Frontier for Pioneer Revolutionaries: John Dooly and the Beginnings of Popular Democracy in Original Wilkes County.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 90 (Fall 2006): 315-49. An expanded version of this article is in Robert M. Calhoon, ed., Tory Insurgents through the University of South Craolina Press: http://www.sc.edu/uscpress/books/2010/3920.html


5. The Battle of Kettle Creek.” Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution 3 (2)(February 2006): 30-35. http://www.southerncampaign.org/


6. “Revolution 3” (2) (February 2006): 35-37. http://www.southerncampaign.org/

“The Loyalists at Kettle Creek.” Southern Campaigns of the American

7. Revolution 3 (2)(February 2006): 43-44.
http://www.southerncampaign.org/

“Carr’s Fort, Georgia-Battle Site.” Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution 3 (2)(February 2006): 44-46. http://www.southerncampaign.org/


8. “Biography: Colonel John Hamilton of the Royal North Carolina Regiment.” Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution 3 (5)(May 2006): 32-34. http://www.southerncampaign.org/


9. “Biography: Colonel John Dooly.” Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution 3 (5)(May 2006): 32-34.30-32. http://www.southerncampaign.org/


10. “Cherokee Ford Fight and the Battle of Vann’s Creek, Georgia.” Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution 5 (1) (winter 2008): 21-23. http://www.southerncampaign.org/

Articles on Elijah Clark and John Dooly in the Dictionary of Georgia Biography (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983).


11. “Austin Dabney” in Dictionary of African American National Biography.

12. “John Dooly” in American National Biography.


13. "List of Prisoners, Ninety Six Jail, 1779." South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research 5 (1977): 195-98.


14. "New List of Revolutionary Soldiers Who Fought at Kettle Creek." Georgia Genealogical Magazine no. 67 (1978): 41-46.


15. "Tories Murdered in the South Carolina Upcountry During the Revolution." South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research 9 (1981): 125-27.


16. “William Bartram, Wrightsborough, and the Prospects for the Georgia Backcountry, 1765-1774.” Pp. 15-32 in Kathryn E. Holland Braund and Charlotte M. Potter, eds.

17. Fields of Vision: Essays on the Travels of William Bartram. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2010.
WORKS BY OTHERS:Elliott, Daniel T., report no. 131.

18. “Stirring up a Hornet’s Nest: The Kettle Creek Battlefield Survey”. Savannah: Lamar institute, 2009. Internet book at:
http://www.thelamarinstitute.org/images/PDFs/publication_131.pdf


19. “A Hammett Family in Georgia History.” Columbus, Ga.: Chereth Creek, 2008. Smith, Gordon Burns.

20. “Morningstars of Liberty: The Revolutionary War in

Georgia, 1775-1783”, Volume One. Boyd Publishing, Milledgeville, Georgia http://www.factorswalk.com/morningstar/morning1.htm

21-25. Author Christine Swager is a retired educator, having taught in the College of Education at The University of South Carolina. When teachers pointed out the scarcity of literature for their students concerning the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution, Dr. Swager determined to address that need. The book, Heroes of Kettle Creek puts in context for people who don’t know the whole story of Georgia’s militia contributions. She is the author of:

21. "Black Crows and White Cockades"

22. "If Ever Your Country Needs You Come to the Cowpens"

23. "The Valiant Died"

24. "The Battle of Eutaw Springs"

25. "Heroes of Kettle Creek: 1779-1783"      

30. “REVOLUTIONARY WAR-TIMELINE.” Dr. Christine Swager researched this timeline and based it on Lumpkin, Henry. From Savannah to Yorktown: The American Revolution in the South http://search.yahoo.com/r/_ylt=A0oG7t3PX4RPXDYAVElXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTE1aWE3cjRoBHNlYwNzcgRwb3MDMgRjb2xvA2FjMgR2dGlkA01TWTAxMl8xNzc-/SIG=121easojm/EXP=1334104143/**http%3a//utahdar.org/members/revwartimeline.pdf


31. “The Hornet's Nest.” A Novel by President Jimmy Carter ; Carter, Jimmy. This is fiction, well-written and very interesting, and it gives the reader a good idea of the hardships encountered by the settlers in Wilkes County.

32. Harris, Joel Chandler. Stories of Georgia. American Book Company, 1896. (Reprinted)

33. Gilmer, Gov. George Rockingham. Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of Upper Georgia. 1855.

34. Moss, Dr. Bobby and Michael Scroggins. African-American Patriots in the Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution. Scotia Hibernia Press, Blacksburg, SC 2004.

35. Moss, Dr. Bobby and Michael Scroggins. African-American Loyalists Scotia Hibernia Press, Blacksburg, SC 2004.

36. Hays, Dr. Louise Frederick, Director of Georgia Department of Archives and History and State Historian of Georgia. Hero of the Hornets Nest; a Biography of Elijah Clark, 1733-1799. Stratford House, NY. 1946

Georgia Land Preservation and Environmental Organizations

Georgia History, Cultural and Arts Statewide Organizations

Kettle Creek Battlefield - Historical Marker Database
Inscription: Marker Front:

The Patriots whose names appear on this marker are those who have been proved to have participated in the Battle of Kettle Creek on February 14, 1779
THE HISTORICALMARKER DATABASE:
http://www.hmdb.org/Marker.asp?Marker=46285

From Oral History and Family Tradition comes a story resulting from conflicts between the Tories and the Patriots during the time period between 1779-1781. Capt. Stephen Heard, member of the Wilkes County Militia and Governor of Georgia fought during those difficult times of the Revolution. Apparently he had been captured by the Loyalist and was sentenced to hang while in jail in Augusta. This is a story about how he was freed. (Note: Heard’s Fort was named after the Heards – John Heard and his two sons Stephen and Barnard. Where Heard’s Fort once stood became the City of Washington - named after General George Washington, the good friend of Stephen Heard and family.

Click Here: Stephen Heard's Rescue

Webmaster: Wendy Johnson. Send comments to:  mailto:kettlecreek@kettlecreekbattlefield.org.